Gender Differences and Education
Author: Qiang Haiyan Uploaded Time: 2017-03-21

The author has written this book to assist teachers and parents in educating their students and children to perform well in physical and mental development, as well as to promote the perfection of their personalities.


Chapter One  Origin and Development of Psychological Gender Differences
One  Emergence of Psychological Gender Differences and Their Development in Different Age Groups
1  Infancy
2  Pre-school
3  Childhood
4  Adolescence
Two  Factors Affecting Psychological Gender Differences
1  Physiological factors
2  Reinforcement, imitation, self initiative
3  School life

Chapter Two  Hereditary and Environmental Functioning of Psychological Gender Differences
One  Early Study of Psychological Gender Differences
Two  Psychoanalytic Theory
1  The basic view of gender differences in psychoanalytic theory
2  The variability of gender differences in psychoanalytic theory
3  Evaluation
Three  Theory of Behavior Genetics
1  Concepts and methods of behavioral genetics
2  Study and discovery of behavioral genetics
3  Evaluation

Chapter Three  Relationships between the Individual and the Environment in Psychological Gender Differences
One  Theory of Social Studies
1  Reinforcement, observation and imitation
2  Acquisition process of gender roles
3  Emergence of gender stereotyping
4  Cross cultural studies
5  Evaluation
Two  Theory of Cognitive Development
1  Development of moral reasoning
2  Development of gender identity
3  Cross cultural study on the development of gender cognition
4  Evaluation

Chapter Four  Acquisition of Children’s Gender Knowledge and Behavior
One  Gender Differences in Behavior and the Developmental Process of Gender Roles
Two  Acquisition Process of Gender Knowledge
1  The process of gender identity begins in infancy
2  Childhood
3  Adolescence
Three  Influencing Social Factors of Children’s Gender Knowledge and Behavior
1  Social factors are decisive
2  Social roles of gender knowledge and behavior formation
Four  The Importance of the Intercultural Study of Gender Socialization

Chapter Five  Gender Schema Comes into Being
One  Gender Schema
1  Introduction of gender schema theory
2  Schema and gender schema
3  The acquisition of gender schema
4  The function of gender schema
Two  Relationships between Gender Schema and Gender Stereotypes
1  Gender stereotypes are rooted in gender schema processing
2  Gender stereotypes have the desire to process information according to the cultural definition of gender
3  Gender stereotypes are more likely to be processed according to gender
4  Gender stereotypes have a high level of gender stereotyping behaviors
Three  Comparison between Gender Schema and Social Learning, and Cognitive Development
Four  Comment
1  Gender schema theory is based on the theory of social learning and cognitive development
2  Value of gender schema theory
3  Limitations of gender schema theory

Chapter Six  Elimination of Gender Schema
One  Gender Schema Not Bound to Form Cognitive Schema
Two  Strategy of Family Education to Eliminate Gender Schema
1  Eliminating gender cultural information unrelated to physical differences
2  Replacing the gender schema with other schemas
3  Establishing a family model that is conducive to fostering children's sense of gender equality
Three  Cultivating Bi-Sexual Students
1  The concept of Androgyny
2  The advantages of Androgyny
3  Questioning the superiority of Androgyny

Chapter Seven  The Formation of the Stereotypes of Gender Roles
One  Stereotypes of Gender Roles
Two  Tests of Stereotypes of Gender Roles
Three  Development of Stereotypes of Gender Roles
Four  Stereotypes of Gender Roles in Different Cultures
1  Tests of children's gender role stereotypes
2  Gender stereotypes of American children
3  Children's gender stereotypes in other countries
4  Preliminary results of cross cultural studies
Five  Function of Stereotypes of Gender Roles
1  The positive aspects of gender stereotypes
2  The negative aspects of gender stereotypes
Six  Maintenance and Change in Stereotypes of Gender Roles
1  Persistence of gender stereotypes
2  Conditions of changing gender stereotypes

Chapter Eight  Elimination of Stereotypes of Gender Roles
One  Eliminating Teachers’ Gender-Stereotyped Cognition and Behavior
1  Teachers should be good at challenging gender stereotypes
2  Teachers should use their own words and deeds to eliminate gender stereotypes
3  Teachers should give the value of feminine things
4  Teachers should be good at discovering students' gender stereotypes
Two  Measures to Eliminate Students’ Gender Stereotypes
1  Allowing children to acquire enough information and knowledge to challenge gender role stereotypes
2  Students' attention and questioning of stereotypes
3  Allowing students to challenge their gender stereotypes
4  Correcting students' gender role stereotypes
5  Eliminating students' professional stereotypes
6  Eliminating gender stereotypes

Chapter Nine  Personality Factors and Women’s Success
One  Success and Failure Attribution of Women’s Models and Education
1  Gender and attribution model
2  Relationship between "significant others" and women
3  Gender-based characteristics of tasks and personality and the attribution of women
4  Gender differences in attribution of success and failure
Two  Gender Difference in Confidence and Education
1  Women are generally less confident than boys
2  Why girls lack confidence
3  How to make girls be confident
Three  Psychological Tendency of the Fear of Success and Women’s Achievement Motivation
1  Theory of "male-centered" achievement motivation and its confusion to women
2  Discovery of the psychological tendency of women's "fear of success"
3  Complexity of traditional gender culture and the structure of female motivation

Chapter Ten  Gender Differences in Ability
One  General Ability
1  Gender differences in general ability are not conclusive
2  Questions about gender differences in general ability
Two  Spatial Ability and Mathematical Ability
1  Gender differences in mathematical ability and spatial ability
2  Gendering mathematics and spatial ability and its related disciplines and occupations
3  Congenital factors and mathematical / spatial abilities
4  Acquired practice and ability of mathematics and space